Effect of deficiency or Excess

  • Most abundant mineral element in the animal body
  • Key structural component in bone
  • Involved in function of nervous system
  • Main role in the skeleton, nervous system and milk production
  • Poor growth and skeletal development (rickets and osteoporosis)
  • Milk fever
  • Depressed milk yield
  • Delayed uterine involution
  • Cystic ovaries
  • Retained placenta
  • Linked with sodium and potassium
  • Role in the production of hydrochloric acid for digestion
  • Dehydration if levels are too high
  • Urine drinking
  • Poor performance
  • Required by rumen microbes for the production of vitamin B12
  • Unthriftiness
  • Poor fertility
  • Pine
  • Anaemia
  • Loss of appetite
  • Rough hair
  • Essential element for fertility, energy utilisation and maintenance of immunity
  • High affinity for molybdenum and sulphur
  • Anoestrus
  • Poor conception rates
  • Embryonic death
  • Delayed puberty
  • Silent heats
  • Anaemia
  • Swayback
  • Poor feed utilisations
  • Low milk quality (fats)
  • Poor body condition
  • Reduced antibody response to vaccination
  • Hair growth and condition
  • Component of hormones produced by the thyroid
  • Works together with selenium in some enzyme systems
  • Symptoms of a deficiency include still births, retained placentas, weak neonatal calves, and abortion
  • Stillbirths
  • Abortion
  • Weak calves
  • Extended calvings
  • Retained placenta
  • Essential for haemoglobin levels in the blood responsible for oxygen transport around the body
  • Reduces the uptake of manganese
  • Suppresses the absorption of copper
  • Anaemia
  • Poor growth
  • Found in bone
  • Key role in reducing stress through its action in suppressing certain hormones
  • Grass staggers
  • Extreme nervousness and death
  • Reduced milk butterfat
  • Hair loss
  • Vital for fertility, bone development and good growth rates
  • High levels of iron depress manganese uptake which can lead to sub-clinical fertility problems
  • Fertility – conception rates
  • Bone malformation in young stock
  • Often associated with toxicity problems
  • Essential for the activity of some enzymes
  • Anoestrus
  • Poor conception rates
  • Embryonic death
  • Delayed puberty
  • Closely associated with calcium in bone
  • Important role in energy metabolism
  • Role in supplying energy to all the animal’s vital processes such as milk production, body condition and fertility
  • Skeletal disorders
  • Poor energy utilisation
  • Depressed fertility
  • Poor appetite
  • Delayed puberty
  • Most abundant mineral in milk
  • An electrolyte and closely involved in fluid balance
  • Slurry is a particularly good source
  • Depresses the uptake of magnesium which can cause staggers
  • The main mineral in milk
  • Water retention and oedema
  • Reduced feed intake
  • Muscle weakness
  • Eating wood
  • Plays an important part with Vitamin E in the anti-oxidative system, which protects the animal from stress and disease
  • Related to iodine in enzyme systems
  • An anti-oxidant or protector of health through the immune system
  • Involved in fertilisation
  • Selenium dependant enzymes act to convert inactive iodine (thyroxin) into its active form (tri-iodothyronine) in the thyroid gland
  • Retained placental tissue
  • Metritis (whites)
  • Extended calving
  • Depressed immune function
  • Poor conception rates
  • White muscle disease
  • Sudden death syndrome
  • Depressed immunity
  • Retained cleansings
  • In combination with potassium, this element is crucial for maintaining fluid balance and optimal cell function
  • Sodium is important in the palatability of grasses and hence forage dry matter intakes
  • Dehydration
  • Urine drinking
  • Needed for proteins found in milk, wool and hair
  • Suppresses molybdenum in the rumen
  • Reduces the uptake of selenium by grass
  • Key role in the rumen to bind copper and molybdenum as thiomolybdate complexes
  • Depressed appetite
  • Weakness
  • Reduced fibre digestion
Vitamin A
  • Required for growth and development
  • Vision
  • Disease resistance
  • Poor vision coordination and reproduction
Vitamin B1
  • For a healthy nervous system
  • CCN
Vitamin B12
  • Energy utilisation
  • Use of proteins by the body
  • Pine
  • Loss of appetite
  • Anaemia
Vitamin D
  • Involved in absorption, transport and storage of calcium in bones
  • Poor utilisation of calcium and phosphorus
Vitamin E
  • Strong antioxidant
  • Disease resistance
  • Works with selenium to protect cells
  • Poor reproduction
  • Muscle weakness
  • Important to immune function and maintenance of health
  • Development of adequate horn tissue in the feet
  • Required by the immune system
  • Maintaining healthy udder tissue
  • Lameness
  • High cell counts in milk
  • Poor health
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Reduced testicular growth